Amador Calafat, Nicole T. Mediterranean lifestyle has long been hailed as protective against certain risk behaviours and diseases.
Mediterranean drinking patterns of moderate alcohol consumption as part of Unprotected amador life have often been assumed to protect young people from harmful alcohol consumption, in contrast to Northern European drinking patterns. Unprotected amador environments are strong related to alcohol and drugs use, and other health risk behaviours but few cross-national studies have been undertaken amongst young Europeans frequenting bars and nightclubs.
This study aims to understand differences in nightlife risk-taking behaviours between young nightlife users from Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean cultures, including alcohol and illicit drug use, unprotected sex, violence and driving under the influence of alcohol.
A total of regular nightlife users aged 16—35 years were surveyed in nine European cities by means of a self-reported questionnaire. Sample Unprotected amador was done through respondent driven sampling techniques. Our data suggest that stereotypes are partially confirmed, and that Mediterranean lifestyle is protective for some risk behaviours drunkenness, ecstasy and amphetamines current usebut not for all of them.
Unprotected amador research in depth is needed in order to clarify the relations Unprotected amador cultural patterns, social norms and nightlife risk behaviours assumed by the young people.
Unprotected amador Mediterranean lifestyle that typically seen in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea has long been hailed as protective against certain risk behaviours and diseases.
Much alcohol consumption among young Europeans occurs in public drinking premises such as bars and nightclubs, particularly at weekend nights. These Unprotected amador are also strongly associated with other risk-taking behaviours, including illicit drug use, violence, drink- and drug-related driving and risky sexual behaviour.
However, less is known about the influence of Mediterranean lifestyles on these behaviours in nightlife users. Despite the strong links between nightlife and risk-taking behaviours, few cross-national studies have been undertaken amongst young Europeans frequenting bars and nightclubs.
A total of regular nightlife users aged 16—35 years were surveyed in nine European cities: The pan European research group Irefrea developed a questionnaire to gather data on demographics of the study population, and a variety of historic and current risk taking behaviours including substance use, violence, risky driving and sexual activity. The questionnaire was based on pre-validated survey tools used in previous studies published by the authors 89 and questions were further refined through consultation with representatives from all participating countries.
The tool was piloted in Palma and Liverpool before final implementation. The seeds were given a verbal and written explanation of the study objectives and methodology which stressed that participation was voluntary and anonymous.
Verbal consent was gained. Part of the survey requested the participant to provide non-identifiable details of the roles of up to 10 friends in their Unprotected amador network; participants were asked to recruit two of these one being a distant friend and one an intermediate associate into the study. Seeds were supplied with multiple copies of the survey to pass along the chain of participants.
Recruitment was repeated and continued through at least two waves after the second wave participants had been identified with the aim of a final sample size of approximately in each country. Questionnaires were self-completed by the participant either in the presence of the researcher or in their own time and returned anonymously by post to the principal researcher in their respective city. The survey took place between February and July Unprotected amador Data from all countries were entered into SPSS v.
Survey respondents from each city were divided into two country groups Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean based on geographical location having a Mediterranean coastline or not and whether they shared a common culture having a Mediterranean lifestyle or not.
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Chi-square analyses were conducted between the groups to determine if a significant difference lies between a Mediterranean versus a non-Mediterranean lifestyle on: To account for confounding factors, Unprotected amador regression analyses were conducted to determine which risky behaviours or nightlife attributes were the most powerful predictors of the Mediterranean group.
Sample characteristics are presented in table 1. The Mediterranean group consisted of a higher percentage of participants in the to year Unprotected amador, Values calculated by chi squares tests. Frequencies of current alcohol and drug use, drunkenness during the last month, leisure Unprotected amador as frequency of nights out per weekend, means of transport when going out and coming back at night and other health risk behaviours, as having been involved in a fight, having more than five sexual partners or having unprotected sex all three behaviours referred to the past 12 months are displayed in table 2 through chi-squares comparisons for the Mediterranean vs.
Nevertheless, after having controlled for all the demographic variables included in table 1binary logistic regression showed which were the remaining differences among groups, as follows: Comparison of alcohol, drug use and other risk behaviours between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations.
P values for the binary logistic regressions. AORs have now been calculated using all demographics in table 1. General linear modelling was used to calculate estimated marginal means, controlling for age, gender, marital status and occupation and self-rated financial level, in order to see the differences between ages of first drug use for both groups.
In the corrected values, no significant differences were found for the age of first use of cocaine, ecstasy neither amphetamines table 3. Estimated marginal means controlling for age, gender, marital status, occupation and self-rated financial level. The aim of this study was to explore the potential influence of the Mediterranean lifestyle on risk-behaviours of young people participating in nightlife. Our findings partly confirm the typical Mediterranean stereotype—a tendency to go out at night more frequently than young people from non-Mediterranean cultures, coupled with less intoxication, less illegal drug use particularly, ecstasy and amphetamines.
However, we found that Mediterranean nightlife users engage in two risk behaviours, drink driving and unprotected sex, more frequently than their non-Mediterranean counterparts. Such behaviours can have negative effects not only the individual, but also on third parties. For instance, driving under Unprotected amador influence of alcohol can have potentially fatal consequences, causing devastating social and emotional repercussions and a burden on public services.
It has been suggested that southern European populations are less concerned about the subsequent impacts of their own actions than Northern European populations Unprotected amador to a lack of civic consciousness; there is possibly a tendency in Southern European countries to rely less on personal responsibility to resolve public health issues, in other words, people are confident on the State or the Government to solve their social problems.
The reasons Unprotected amador these differences cannot be simple, because there are many questions implied. Among other questions there is a strong movement towards homogenization in Europe, which affects questions like consumption patterns.
But let us have a look to some other questions. This is also true of non-Mediterranean countries, such as the UK, where cheap alcohol can be purchased in the supermarket for consumption at home before going out.
Thus, accessibility is unlikely to be an explanation for the differences in frequency of drunkenness and ecstasy use between the Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean groups found here. The age at first use is a known risk factor for current participation in drugs.
So the age at which participants first use drugs could be related to cultural norms. Family influence Unprotected amador control may be responsible for the delayed initiation in the Mediterranean group in our sample, but finally what counts will be the informal control or Civic norms — prohibitions against engaging in behaviours that are often Unprotected amador or tolerated when conducted in private settings—that Unprotected amador have Unprotected amador important effect on public drunkenness, drug abuse or other deviant behaviours.
Drunkenness is not an acceptable behaviour culturally or socially in Mediterranean countries.
A recent study among an Italian population indicated that a social control exists at parties and in restaurants, where excessive consumption appears to be tolerated, but only if socially regulated. They also indicated Unprotected amador transition from a partially intoxicating use of alcohol to a moderate use.
InBellis et al. For instance, in a sample of over young Europeans visiting Ibiza we found that British participants were involved in fights more often than Germans or Spanish participants.
One explanation could be that, differences in the levels of violence among nationalities were related in Unprotected amador study to contextual situations tourists from other countries, and tourists from the own country and in the present one, respondents were in their original countries of origin.
A Mediterranean lifestyle and the social expectations that exist in their culture could be functioning as safeguarding factors in nightlife risk behaviours such as binge drinking patterns Unprotected amador excessively often to the point of drunkenness over short time scalesecstasy usage and involvement in violent incidents; however, it does not protect against engaging in unsafe sex or driving under the influence. The results here are in contrast to that found by Kloep 25 suggesting that there are no big cultural differences related to the risk behaviours adolescents participate in.
One possible explanation could be the difference in the ages of the samples this study includes Unprotected amador until 35 yearsand maybe the adolescent behaviour is closer between cultures than it becomes when getting older.
Unprotected amador study provides an interesting insight into the differences in nightlife activity of young people across Europe, a relatively under researched area. However, the representativeness of the sampling should be used with caution: Instead, results should be viewed as a tendency, which needs further research with broader samples.
Further research should focus not only on the frequency of risk behaviours in nightlife, but also the implications of trans-cultural differences. No differences for current alcohol, tobacco, cannabis neither cocaine were found between groups, although mean age of first use was lower in general terms for the non-Mediterranean groups.
Non-Mediterranean sample showed significant higher levels of current ecstasy, amphetamines and Unprotected amador use, and also drunkenness.
Regarding other health risk behaviours, and after controlling for demographic Unprotected amador, it was found that Mediterranean are about five times more likely to drive drunk, and about two times more likely to assume risky sexual relations, although presenting lower levels of promiscuity.
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This study points towards tendencies which must be further researched in depth in the frame of the study of cultural patterns, social norms and its relation with nightlife risk behaviours assumed by the young Europeans. We want to thank all the collaborative teams that helped us to collect data across Europe, as follows: Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Unprotected amador navigation. Nightlife young Unprotected amador behaviours in Mediterranean versus other European cities: Drinking alcohol with meals in Unprotected amador Respondent-driven sampling to recruit MDMA users: Effects of beverage alcohol price and tax levels on drinking: Adolescent illegal drug use: Alcohol, nightlife and violence: Young people and drugs among 15—24 year-olds.
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