An ox plural oxenalso known as a bullock Plowing the trainer Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal. Oxen are commonly castrated adult male cattle ; castration makes the animals more docile.
Oxen are used for plowingfor transport ridingpulling carts and hauling wagonsfor threshing grain by trampling, and for powering machines that grind grain or supply irrigation among other purposes. Oxen may be also used to skid logs in forests, particularly in low-impact, select-cut logging.
Draft oxen are usually yoked in pairs. Light work such as carting household items on good roads may only require one pair, while for heavier work, further pairs would be added as necessary. A team used for a heavy load over difficult ground might exceed nine or ten pairs.
Oxen are thought to have first been Plowing the trainer and put to work around BC. Working oxen are taught to respond to the signals of the teamster or ox-driver. These signals are given by verbal command and body language, reinforced by a goadwhip or a long pole which also serves as a measure of length: In pre-industrial times, most teamsters were known for their loud voices and forthright language.
Verbal commands for working animals vary widely throughout the world.
In North America, the most common commands are:. In the New England tradition, young castrated cattle selected for draft are known as working steers and are painstakingly trained from a young age. Their teamster makes or buys as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes for each animal as it grows.
The steers are normally considered fully trained at Plowing the trainer age of four and only then become known as oxen.
A tradition in south eastern England was to use oxen often Sussex cattle as dual-purpose animals: A plowing team of eight oxen normally consisted of four pairs aged a year apart.
Each year, a pair of steers of about three years of age would be bought for the team and trained with the older animals. The pair would be kept for about four years, then sold at about seven years old to be fattened Plowing the trainer beef — thus covering much of the cost of buying that year's new pair.
Use of oxen for plowing survived in some areas of England such as the South Downs until the early twentieth century. Pairs of oxen were always Plowing the trainer the same way round, and they were often given paired names. In southern England it was traditional to call the near-side left ox of a pair by a single-syllable name and the off-side right one by Plowing the trainer longer one for example: Lark and Linnet, Turk and Tiger.
Ox trainers favor larger animals for their ability to carry and pull heavier loads. They are therefore usually of larger breeds, and are usually males because they are generally larger. Females can also be trained as oxen, but they are smaller; they are often more valued for producing calves and milk.
Bulls are also used in many parts of the world as oxen, especially Asia and Africa. Working oxen usually have oxshoes,  which are metal devices nailed into their hooves, used to protect them from excessive wear.
The continual strain borne on their feet by Plowing the trainer weight they carry may injure and lead to cracking of the hoovesjust as with horses. Despite this, in England, not all working oxen were shod. Oxshoes are usually of a flat shape with an outline similar to a half-moon or a banana, either have or do not have caulkinsand are fitted in symmetrical pairs to the hooves.
Unlike horses, oxen are not easily able to balance on three legs while a farrier shoes the fourth. Such devices were made of wood in the past, but may today be of metal. Similar devices are found in France, Austria, Germany, Spain, Canada and the United States, where they may be called ox slings, ox presses or shoeing stalls. While less efficient and sensibly less prevalent than horses, the Plowing the trainer of cattle as a means of transportation has happened throughout history, and the act is sometimes known as ox riding and oxback riding.
There are many forms of riding equipment used by oxen, and some slightly differ from those used by horses. As previously mentioned, they are not only controlled by being steered using reins; working animal-voice commands giddyup, whoa, gee, haw, and back are Plowing the trainer used to signal the starting, stopping, and direction of movement.
Cattle are far less comfortable to ride than horses, as they are much wider. Oxen can pull heavier loads, and pull for a longer period of time than horses depending on weather conditions.
For agricultural purposes, oxen are more suitable for heavy tasks such as breaking sod or plowing in wet, heavy, or clay-filled soil. When hauling or being ridden, oxen can move very heavy loads in a slow and steady fashion.
They are at a disadvantage compared to horses when it is necessary to carry or pull a load relatively quickly. Plowing the trainer millennia, oxen also could pull heavier loads because of the use of the yoke Plowing the trainer, which was designed to work best with the neck and shoulder anatomy of cattle. Until the invention of the horse collarwhich allowed the horse to engage the pushing power of its hindquarters in moving a load, horses could not pull with their full strength because the yoke was incompatible with their anatomy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about cattle used for work. For other uses of ox or oxensee Ox disambiguation. For other uses of bullocksee Bullock. Not to be confused with aurochs or musk ox. Archived from the original on November 24, Retrieved September 17, Oxen, A Teamster's Guide.
Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 22 May Archived from the Plowing the trainer on Working Oxen on the Village's Historical Farms". Archived from the original on 26 September The Illustrated London News. Archived from the original on 4 October Archived from the original on 20 December Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 7 October Plowing the trainer Wet Dry Routes Chapter Newsletter.
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