Author contributions Conception and design: The right femoral vessels of 80 rats were identified and dissected. External lengths and diameters of femoral arteries and femoral veins were measured using either a microscope or a video magnification system. Mean length was Os vasos femorais de 80 ratos foram identificados e dissecados. Anatomic knowledge is extremely important when using animals to reproduce clinical situations for validation of experimental models of diseases and surgical conditions.
Tiny vessels make safe manipulation, adventitia removal, vessel lumen dilation, and final anastomosis difficult.
Knowledge of the anatomic features of rat femoral vessels is essential for microsurgery training and research, but there are scant data in the literature on morphometric analysis of rat femoral vessels. However, while microscopes offer excellent resolution, correctly measuring the external morphometric parameters of femoral vessels is very difficult.
In this scenario, video microsurgery comes into its own because video systems using digital technology, with camcorders to capture images and transmit them in real time to HD TV sets, offer surprisingly high quality, good enough to enable precise and safe manipulation of delicate tissues. To date, video systems have only been used for arterial microanastomosis. It is therefore necessary to describe the anatomic features of rat femoral vessels must to facilitate training using rats and for future studies.
The animals were randomly assigned to two groups 20 males and 20 females per group: The video camera was set vertically 9.
Two low-intensity halogen light sources were used near to the camera to provide adequate illumination of the surgical field.
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All surgical procedures were performed by the same surgeon. All animals underwent the same surgical procedure, with the two groups differing only in the magnification technique used.
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Antisepsis was performed for all right hind legs. Under direct view, a longitudinal incision was made in the inguinal ligament, followed by blunt dissection between subcutaneous tissues to expose the femoral neurovascular bundle. The femoral vessels were identified and individualized. A blue rubber shield was used for better visualization of vessels. The limits of femoral vessels 8 were defined from the inguinal ligament to the superficial epigastric branch.
External morphometric parameters were measured with the aid of a millimeter ruler Figure 1 and confirmed by digital caliper. After these data had been collected, the specimens were used by for microsurgical training. In all animals studied, only one right femoral artery and vein were found per animal, there was one branch superficial circumflex iliac branch located at the proximal third of the arterial graft and the middle of the venous vessel.
The lengths of femoral arteries and femoral veins were identical and there were no statistically significant difference between the groups microscope: There was no statistically significant difference between sexes in terms Renan costa e matheys httppi vessel length using either magnification technique.
There were also no significant differences between groups for diameters of femoral arteries microscope: The mean weight of the animals was Video microsurgery offers several advantages, 12 - 14 such as: The main limitation of the video-assisted system is the lack of a stereoscopic view, although, as with laparoscopic and endoscopic Renan costa e matheys httppi, information on spatial depth can be inferred from secondary spatial depth cues and from experience.
Sex did not influence external morphometric parameters, allowing both sexes to be used for surgery practice.
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Normally, female animals are less often used for research, 15 so they can be used for training, reducing costs for the laboratory and animal house. Usually, fatter animals are used for training because it is believed that they have larger vessels, 3 Renan costa e matheys httppi, 816 but in our data only venous diameter was affected by this parameter. This demonstrates that there is little advantage from using fatter rats, since venous anastomoses are difficult to construct because of thinner walls.
The diameters and lengths of the femoral vessels studied were similar to those observed by other authors Renan costa e matheys httppi these vessels, 27 providing additional evidence that femoral vessels are a good model for microsurgery training. However, this model does have certain limitations, such as the absence of venous valves 2 and thinner walls than human vessels. We believe there is still scope to improve this proposal.
Refinements can be made in two areas: In summary, on the basis of the methodology used in this study, we conclude that the average length of both femoral vessels was There were no statistically significant differences between the results of using a microscope or video system magnification.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Vasc Bras v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
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No conflicts of interest declared concerning the publication of this article. Contributed by Author contributions Conception and design: Received Dec 5; Accepted Jan This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract The right femoral vessels of 80 rats were identified and dissected. Resumo Os vasos femorais de 80 ratos foram identificados e dissecados.
Open in a separate window. Photographs of femoral vessels: A Renan costa e matheys httppi view; B Femoral vein under video system magnification.
RESULTS In all animals studied, only one right femoral artery and vein were found per animal, there was one branch superficial circumflex iliac branch located at the proximal third of the arterial graft and the middle of the venous vessel.
New model for microsurgical training and skills maintenance. Do the femoral veins of female Wistar rats have valves?
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Validation of microsurgical models in microsurgery training and competence: Development of training curriculum for microsurgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg.
A rapid vascular anastomosis technique for hind-limb transplantation in rats.
Orthotopic hind-limb transplantation in rats. Laboratory training program in microsurgery at the National Cancer Institute. Rev Bras Cir Plast. Vascular grafts in the rat model: A comparative experimental study.
Br J Plast Surg. Universal multifunctional HD video system foi minimally invasive open and microsurgery.
Is it possible to do a microvascular anastomosis with an ordinary video camera? Assessment of three-dimensional high-definition visualization technology to perform microvascular anastomosis.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. Application of a three-dimensional microsurgical video system for a rat femoral vessel anastomosis.
Chin Med J Engl ; 2: Zucker I, Beery AK. Males still dominate animal studies. Microsurgical training curriculum for learning kidney and liver transplantation in the rat.
Build a BITalino-powered robotic hand, Matheus Vieira, Nádia Costa, Renan How to get BITalino to working with Unity 5, Filipe Rodrigues & Hugo Gamboa. Stadio: Joaquim Henrique Nogueira (25,) Sito Internet: reiswereld.infoco. reiswereld.info (BRA - ) N. NOME E COGNOME NAZ D.D.N. PRESENZE E RETI Ricardinho 29 5 - Renan Ribeiro BRA Diego Souza Fabiano 16 - Fábio Costa 16 - - Bernard BRA Jayro. Campos, Renan Costa: Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Instituto de Ciencias Barros, D.
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M., Mello e Souza, T., De David, T., Choi, H., Aguzolli, A., Madsche, C. reiswereld.info; de Kloet, E. R., Joëls, M.
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REISWERELD.INFO SILVAII; CLEDIMAR ROGÉRIO LOURENZIIV; FELIPE LORENSINIV; RENAN COSTA BEBER VIEIRAVI; OS TRATAMENTOS... REISWERELD.INFO?JOURNALCODE= AILA S. SALINAS, RENAN N. COSTA, VICTOR G.D. ORRICO... COPPER AND ZINC FORMS AND ACCUMULATION IN SOIL AFTER SUCCESSIVE PIG...
Several functional near-infrared spectroscopy fNIRS studies report their findings based on changes of a single chromophore, usually concentration changes of oxygenated hemoglobin [ O 2 Hb ] or deoxygenated hemoglobin HHb. Copper and zinc forms and accumulation in soil after successive pig slurry applications. Author contributions Conception and design: Morphometric analysis of rat femoral vessels under a video magnification system HCI Tutorial | Biometric Sensors | Bitalino
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Morphometric analysis of rat...
After that, we computed the median correlation value over all subjects. A total of 17 applications were applied to the soil surface between May and October To date, video systems have only been used for arterial microanastomosis.
Chin Med J Engl ; 2: As described in Sec.
What's your weakness when it comes to attraction? Blain B, Zhang F, Jones M, et al. Vascular grafts in the rat model: an anatomic study. Microsurgery. ;21(3)– reiswereld.info reiswereld.info SilvaII; Cledimar Rogério LourenziIV; Felipe LorensiniV; Renan Costa Beber VieiraVI; Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de 0, 20, 40 e 80 m3 ha-1 de dejeto líquido de suínos..
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